The American lion coexisted with the smilodon – the saber-toothed tiger (Smilodon populator) – but it was lighter (the smilodon weighed 360-400 kg) and had a different hunting pattern than the prehistoric tiger. [8] American lions likely preyed on deer, horses, camels, tapirs, American bison, mammoths, and other large ungulates (hoofed mammals). The cave lion was probably predominantly found in open habitits such as steppe and grasslands although it would have also have occurred in open woodlands as well. The most recent fossil, from Edmonton, dates to 11,355 ± 55 years ago. [31] The American lion went extinct along with most of the Pleistocene megafauna during the Quaternary extinction event. [3][26] Evidence for predation of bison by American lions is particularly strong as a mummified carcass nicknamed "Blue Babe" was discovered in Alaska with clear bite and claw marks from lions. Intelligence could have been a key feature that guaranteed survival in the Pleistocene ecosystem of North America. This bear was so massive that scientists believe it regularly weighed between 2,000 and 4,000 pounds, although newer estimates have brought down the upper end of that scale … A replica of the jaw of the first American lion specimen to be discovered can be seen in the hand of a statue of famous paleontologist Joseph Leidy, currently standing outside the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. Its fossils have been excavated from Alaska to Mexico. It was often depicted in cave paintings as having some kind of collar fluff and possibly stripes. [11] Another study suggested that the American lion and the Eurasian cave lion were successive offshoots of a lineage leading to a leopard-extant lion clade. Eurasian Cave Lion (Coalition of 2) - Panthera leo spelaea Panthera leo spelaea or P. spelaea, commonly known as the European or Eurasian cave lion, is an extinct subspecies of lion known from fossils and many examples of prehistoric art.This subspecies was one of the largest lions. The American lion — also known as the North American lion or American cave lion — is an extinct feline of the family Felidae, endemic to North America during the Pleistocene epoch. It was later assigned as a subspecies of P. leo (P. leo atrox) rather than as a separate species. This extinct and great cat lived in North America and north-western regions of South America in the Pleistocene from 1.8m to 11,000 years ago. For the Pulitzer-winning biography, see, "Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Pantherkatzen (, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, "The evolutionary history of extinct and living lions", "Who's Who in the Pleistocene: A Mammalian Bestiary", "Implications of diet for the extinction of saber-toothed cats and American lions", "Revelan que el León Americano Habitó la Patagonia", "Perusing Talara: Overview of the Late Pleistocene fossils from the tar seeps of Peru",, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Skeleton from the La Brea tar pits at the, The maximal range of cave lions - red indicates, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 18:26. The American lion (Panthera atrox), also known as the "North American lion", or "American cave lion", is an extinct pantherine cat that lived in North America during the Pleistocene epoch and the early Holocene epoch, about 340,000 to 11,000 years ago. Theropods Top 10, The longest Stegosaurians (Stegosauria) TOP 10. [7], The study also indicates that the modern lion is the closest living relative of P. atrox and P. Generally, the American lion, though a male Siberian tiger would have a fair chance against a female American lion. The animal hunted by cave lions included cave bear, prehistoric elephants, and prehistoric horses. Why are they extinct? Smilodon Populator is bigger than the Cave Lion, American Lion is the bigger cat that ever lived on Earth. Genetic analysis has shown that the American lion and the Late Pleistocene Eurasian cave lion (Panthera spelaea) are sister lineages. American Lion - Panthera leo atrox The American lion (Panthera leo atrox or P. atrox) — also known as the North American lion, Naegele’s giant jaguar or American cave lion — is an extinct lion of the family Felidae, endemic to North America during the Pleistocene epoch (0.34 mya to 11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 0.33 million years. According to a recent analysis of mitochondrial DNA (which is passed on only by females, thus allowing for detailed genealogical studies), the American lion diverged from an isolated family of cave lions, cut off from the rest of the population by glacial activity, about 340,000 years ago. [25][26] The American lion was formerly believed to have colonized northwestern South America as part of the Great American Interchange. The end of the last glaciation and the fact that humans increasingly hunted for the possible prey of the lions contributed to the extinction of, among others, the short-faced bear, dire wolf, and American lion. Extinction of dinosaurs. This implies that it became genetically isolated from P. spelaea before the start of the Illinoian glaciation; a spelaea population is known to have been present in eastern Beringia by that time, where it persisted until at least 11,925 ± 70 years ago. It was proposed that it arose from pantherines that migrated to North America during the mid-Pleistocene and gave rise to American lions and jaguars (Panthera onca). The head-body length of the American lion is estimated to have been 1.6–2.5 m … The head-body length of the American lion is estimated to have been 1.6–2.5 m … [8], The American lion was designated by American paleontologist Joseph Leidy as Felis atrox in 1853. Bone fragments of P. l. fossilis were also excavated near Pakefield in the United Kingdom, which are estimated at 680,000 years old. Boreal forests may have contributed to the separation during warmer intervals; alternatively, a reproductive barrier may have existed. [28][29][30] On the other hand, fossils of a large felid from late Pleistocene localities in southern Chile and Argentina traditionally identified as an extinct subspecies of jaguar, Panthera onca mesembrina, have been reported to be remains of the American lion. [2][3][4] DNA analysis which shows that the American lion and Eurasian cave lion were almost identical,‭ ‬although the American does seem to have grown slightly larger.‭ ‬Current thinking is that Eurasian cave lions crossed over the Bering Strait into North America during the Ionian stage of [13] American lion bones have been found in the trash heaps of Paleolithic Native Americans, suggesting that human predation contributed to its extinction.[15][26]. Essentially, it was a plus-sized cat that roamed the vast expanse of Eurasia, feasting on big prey, including prehistoric horses and wooly mammoths. This is quite simply, the largest bear ever discovered and by default, a contender for the largest carnivorous land mammal ever to live. Boris Sorkin in “A biomechanical constraint on body mass in terrestrial mammalian predators” (2008) estimated its weight at 420 kg (930 lb). The closest living relative of the American lion, "African lions engage in aggressive takeovers where one to several males will take over an entire pride - the males have battles to the death," said Van Valkenburgh. showed that the lineage of the cave lion diverged from that of the modern lion around 392,000 – 529,000 years ago. Genetic analyses have showed that it was a sister lineage of the European lion. The Sabertooth King (Cave Bear vs Cave Lion) ... American Lion vs Polar Bear 2020 - Duration: 6:07. It was about 25% larger than the modern lion, making it one of the largest known felids. Today, however, it is believed that it was lighter. Although it's not yet definitively clear whether the late Pleistocene Panthera spelaea, the famous Ice Age Cave lion was derived from P. fossilis or not, it is nonetheless suggested by the fossil record that, at the end of the Middle Pleistocene, morphologically distinctive Panthera spelaea type could have evolved from one local montane population of P. fossilis in the Alps area. [26], The remains of American lions are not as abundant as those of other predators like Smilodon fatalis or dire wolves (Canis dirus) at the La Brea Tar Pits, which suggests that they were better at evading entrapment, possibly due to greater intelligence. Based on the largely intact nature of the carcass, it probably froze before the lions could devour it. We will try to answer these questions in this article. The Latin term spelaea means “cave”, and atrox may be translated as “cruel”/”dreadful”. Facts about Cave Lions 10: another opinion about cave lion’s extinction. Ironically, the Cave Lion (Panthera leo spelaea) received its name in reference to the Cave Bear.This big cat didn't actually live in caves; rather, its moniker derives from the fact that Panthera leo spelaea fossils have been discovered mixed in with Cave Bear remains. [5][6] Genetic analysis has shown that the American lion and the Late Pleistocene Eurasian cave lion (Panthera spelaea) are sister lineages. 6:07. 1. With a maximum head and body length of 2.40 meters, which is about half a meter longer than today's African lions, Panthera leo fossilis was almost as big as the American lion from the Upper Pleistocene. [7] Today, however, it is believed that it was lighter. This makes them larger and correspondingly stronger than a Siberian tiger. American lions were likely to have hunted on deer, equidae, and camelids of the species Camelophs hesternus, so-called Californian tapirs (Tapirus californicus), bisons, mammoths, and other big herbivores. Weight of Ankylosaurus, The heaviest Stegosaurians (Stegosauria) Top 10, Haast’s eagle – the largest eagle that existed, The longest predatory dinosaurs.